Work Paper: Towards Developing A Modern social contract theory – The Modern Electoral .Weights Theory

**The Modern Social Contract Theory**

Work Paper: Towards Developing A Modern social contract theory – The Modern Electoral .Weights Theory

Author: Moustapha Ebaid

Conference Name: Academic OASIS, PARIS International Multidisciplinary Academic Conference, Paris Conference, 2015

**Theme: Promoting Research Advancements and Worldwide Progress**

ORGANIZED by: Academic Organization for Advancement of Strategic and International Studies, ® Academic OASIS

**Abstract**

It is certain that we need now, more than ever, to find creative and innovative solutions for the problems that we face in our communities, those problems which exceeded all what it could overtake down to some extent wrestle aching between multiple parties in the same society, which is supposed to be a compact of all colors in the face of what is most important and most in need to face the challenges for the benefits of future generations, those generations that we neglected over the years and we neglect all of its future in the midst of these conflicts, so we got to where we are now, in spite of we own those multi-colors that enviable and considered from others as the most beautiful and most powerful things we have, while they are mired in one color in spite of the multiplicity of parties and different names to the point that we as Arabs have not noticed, or even care about the simple difference between any of them.

Strangely, however, in this matter we are reaping now is a result of negligence of those previous generations, until they reached the legal age which make them entitled to the election, and therein lies our real problem, since we made of the election vote for a young man in the eighteen years of age, who may be a university student or even in high school, equivalent to the same weight of a vote for any other man in the sixty or fifty years of age, for example, while he is possible to be at the same time the grandfather of the young man or his father who is still sponsored by him and reckless his impulsive behavior sometimes, may also be a teacher, university lecturer or director of his school where he receives the basics of education, and this core our big problem and the origin of all the other problems because we did not give them enough, and necessary, attention when we clone the democratic experience of the West, which have a deferent social structure and its liberal significantly which defer than in the Arab society.

**Developments Needs**

So, and from this point of view, and to complete the democratic experiment with its development in this era, we should Re-Engineer and Re-Construct the Social Contract theory and the Electoral Process in all areas and all fields of life and political union, municipal, academic, social and even polls of public opinion, to suit our new global society to which we aspire to be a democratic society which seeks for developmentally to flourish within the core of the word, not in the current cloned sense which leads to the confusion, the meaning that leads to a justice in the measurement of the votes, according to many factors, which we mention them here such as, but not limited to, age, marital status, number of children, for example, according to the weights that can be determined for each factor of what we think it is important factor, so that we reach the desired goal for the restoration of the gap that arose because of neglecting of this matter.

And from a purely scientific perspective athlete, and using the tools of the effective mathematical statistical contributed over the centuries in the development of solid solutions to many of the complex scientific issues, and established to conduct several scientific research specialist aimed to analyze any phenomena and the development of relationships and correlations between factors affecting it, which extended to all areas of the humanities and natural theoretical and applied sciences, these are the only tools that we can find using it a creative solutions to that issue through the work of studies and research aimed to identify all the factors and assess the “weights” of each factor and assembled together to produce “Total Electoral Weight” which will be fair for everyone so that it is fair for all of society.

Then, all parents will reassure of the future of the coming generations, albeit a relative may be interpreted in the end of the stability of society as a whole and the interdependence and cohesion through the growing role of the youth conscious in charge, the elderly and veterans, “election”, just as it happens to the Arabic family at home where both father and mother responsible about the management and education and guidance of their children from a young age and give them responsibility gradually for older and then for younger sequentially starting from greater age without prejudice or extravagant, and let us imagine the essential difference that will impact weights election theory especially in the statistically fledgling significant communities, and positive impact on the structure of Arab society as a whole, and the reorder of our internal house and building a democratic society in line with the customs and traditions of Arabian horses.

### The Modern Social Contract Theory **– Electoral Weights Theory**

The Electoral Weights Theory is a simple theory that can used for elections, and its fundamental issue is to add a new argument for every person in the society, which may named “Electoral Weight” in any elections, according to a number of different factors, such as age category, marital status, for re-engineering the elections process, in order to be more compatible with the community properties.

This theory is supposed to be used or applied only after doing many of researches and studies that will explore its positive impact and the possibility to be applied, as well as knowing what is the exact factors and its impact on the electoral weight value for each member of the society.

The next simple study may be a model that can be emulated to do many of other studies and researches that aim to gain more knowledge about the applicability and affectivity of this theory,

** Practical Study For Electoral Weights Theory**

A University Student Union Elections as an experiment of developing social contract theory in university

**Introduction**

In order to apply the electoral weights theory in universities, we should classified all students according to the year level of study for each one of them, this may be the best suitable way for classification and an easy way to implement without any complications, and this means that the factor of classification depends on the time spent at the university which earned him the practical experience in the university life and will became over the years knows more about the needs and requirements, or even how to solve the problems faced in his university life in general, on the other hand, and may be more important, he will become knowing more about the candidates to the board of the students union and their abilities and the implementation of their programs in practice and achieve the aspirations of the students through the union.

According to the electoral weights theory, considering a university with 4 level years of study, we can apply the theory as follows:

**A: The Basic Weights**

1. First-year students: The Electoral Weight = 1

2. Second-year students: The Electoral Weight = 2

3. Third-year students: The Electoral Weight = 3

4. Fourth-year students: The Electoral Weight = 4

And so on for the rest of the years/levels if any.

**B: Optional Weights added in case of failure for the
first time**

In case of failure for the first time and to return any year of the study is added only half a point:

1. Failed Student in the First year, first time: the electoral weight election = 1.5 instead of 1

2. Failed Student in the Second year, first time: the electoral weight election = 2.5 instead of 2

3. Failed Student in the Third year, first time: the electoral weight election = 3.5 instead of 3

4. Failed Student in the Fourth year, first time: the electoral weight election = 4.5 instead of 4

And so on for the rest of the years/levels if any.

**C: Optional more weights added in case of repeated
failure**

In the event of repeated failure becomes difficult to add more of half points, because it would make the electoral weight of a student who may fail three times in the second year 3.5 points, which is larger than the electoral weight of a student in the third year, so it is recommended to add fewer points when a student fail more than one time as follows:

1. As before, in the case of failure for the first time we add weight of = (0.5) half a point

2. In the case of failure for second time we add weight of = (0.25), quarter a point

3. In the case of failure for third time we add weight of = (0.125), eighth a point

And so on, with the same geometric sequence of adding a half in the first failure and then half of the half in the second repetition and so on, and according to this sequence there is no matter about whatever is the times of repetition in any year because the weight will always be less than the next academic year weight.

According to the equation: 1/2 + 1/4 + 1/8 + 1/16 + ….. to infinity = 1

**D: Mechanism of applying the election procedures using
electoral weights theory**

After selecting the electoral weights for all students in accordance with the weights tables that have been outlined above, the conduct of elections in the same way normal with the addition of the following steps:

1. the division of election papers into categories and each category represents a certain weight and preferably be allocated a specific color for each category, for example, elected students with the electoral weight 1 sheets are white, and leaves weight of 1.5 to be green, and so on for all weights, including weights, which include decimal only half a point, and can be used to bring the process to avoid the use of many classes, for example, maintains a student owner of the electoral weight of 2.75 (precipitate twice in the second year) with the same weight, but we can give him the opportunity to use the ballot paper, which weigh 3 door rounding in case there was not much of the students in that class so as to maintain the confidentiality of the election as it is known.

2. is the distribution of ballots color appropriate for each student, according to the electoral weight category that belongs to him, and then fill out and put it in the box just as being in regular elections with the simple difference here which is the color of the paper only.

3. After the conclusion of the election for all students the process of screening process begins to sounds in the same way normal also assembled, so that we get in the end on the statistical table of the votes obtained by each candidate, with additional clarifying the number of votes shows for each color of the colors that represent a certain electoral weight.

4. After counting all votes of papers of all colors, with an exact distribution table that shows total number of votes of every color for every candidate we can get this table as an example:

**E: The Statistical Calculations of the election results**

The following table is showing the statistics of the votes of an imaginary example of a university students union elections, which was aim to select 2 candidates from total 5.

Supposed that there is 10000 student distributed as follows

4000 student in the first year, with electoral weight = 1 for each

3000 student in the second year, with electoral weight = 2 for each

2000 student in the third year, with electoral weight = 3 for each

1000 student in the fourth year, with electoral weight = 4 for each

All of this student have voted in this elections, and there was only 4 weights that applicable in this university according to the grade of study year, starting from 1 up to 4.

For every candidate we counted all his votes that came from every weight, and then distributed the votes according to the weight corresponding in each column and computed the total weight of each column and then counted the sum as the total net weights of votes as shown in this table:

According to the above statistics, we can notice the way that the electoral weight played in this election and made the deference, as we have the candidates A and B was advanced with 2200 and 2100 total votes respectively, but this wasn’t sufficient to win this election when using the electoral theory, and the winners instead of them should be the candidate D and C, who gained 4300 and 4200 of total net weights of votes after using the theory.

It is clear that the use of electoral weights theory greatly influenced the outcome of the election in this simplified imaginary example, with the large effect that resulted from the impact of high electoral weights’ students votes who are in the higher level in the university, compared with the impact of new students with low electoral weights voices who belong to the first year grade.

**F: Additional Notes**

**1**. It may be required a brief identification of fixing the electoral weights for every student according to more categories or more detailed information as it may meet the needs of the university, and according to what can be beneficial that and what is expected from this new categories, so it is possible that the university may not use only grade year to put the electoral weights, and it may add other factors to determine this weight, such as the scientific level and the public activities or his participation in the academic and research activities as an additional factors that may be used to collect annual points and then using all these factors in a special mathematical equation to calculate the exact electoral weight of each student.

**2**. in the previous example, the electoral weights was counted as 1, 2, 3, 4 for the students who are in grade 1, 2, 3, 4 respectively, and that made the effect of the votes of high level student double of the lower levels, but there is still many ways to use this theory with lower effects, for example, in the same university it was also possible to determine the electoral weight to be in accordance with the following series :

first year with electoral weight = 1.1

second year, with electoral weight = 1.2

third year, with electoral weight = 1.3

fourth year, with electoral weight = 1.4

with this type of classification for the electoral weights we may not have a big effect of the high levels grade students’ votes, which may make big changes to the election results, but in general it is important to have good planning for the selection of the best way to fit with the goal of applying the theory, which is the development of the electoral process and access to get the best results that is more suitable for the university that apply it.

**3**. Also we may use more than one factor that can be classified in the same way as the level year study in similar way and then adding it to the electoral weight of the student, to get the final values of it and then use it in the statistical table as above.

For example, if we supposed another factor such as scientific and public activities for every student to be one of 4 choices too, as this:

low scientific scale students take additional electoral weight = 1

medium scientific scale students take additional electoral weight = 2

High scientific scale students take additional electoral weight = 3

So, with this new factor we can suppose a total electoral weight value for any student will be equivalent to his year of study + his scientific scale, for example for a student in the 3^{rd} year who has a medium scientific scale will get a total electoral Weight equal to 3 + 2 = 5.

**Recommendations**

When applying the The Modern Social Contract Theory – Electoral Weights Theory in a university, it usually aims for a real development of the elections process, in order to achieve the highest level of success for it and for the whole activities in the university and its educational goals, and the best simplification of this theory that is it help us to expand the role of the high level and more experienced students and to make the more benefits from their experience that they accumulated during their academic study, rather than equality with the new students who are newly enrolled to the university, who usually may need more time to gain that experience.

On the other hand, we should make a lot of researches and studies before we start applying the The Modern Social Contract Theory, especially the necessary factors that needed to calculate the electoral weight, and it is many several factors, for example if a university is taking care more about scientific research it may be important to calculate the points for scientific research carried out by the student and entered it into the equation that used for calculating the electoral weight, while in another university they may, for example, give the students additional points for his attending of the lectures for all or some courses and count this points in the electoral weights computing.

In general, it is supposed from the university that going to apply this theory to use it with the way that help in achieving its big goals which may defer from one to other, for example, the universities who are looking for global competition and characteristically they may raise the weights using factors related to the research activity in general, and the universities who are looking for rising the regularity issue will make the weights depends more on the attendance of verity lectures as a kind of encouragement for the students to get better electoral weights.

In all cases, the application of this theory will lead to a situation of competition between all students to estimate and uphold the self-respect in the university environment by trying to raise the value of the vote’s electoral weight, and this will create a state of the intensification of scientific and research competition or commitment in general each year, and during all years that make the student get its results every year directly at the elections date, and also solve the laziness problem that can occur during the long term studying for all years

**Summary**

In fact, we are using the Electoral Weights Theory every day and everywhere, we are almost using it in all places, directly or indirectly, in our house, school, work, in companies, banks, insurance companies and telecommunications, in retail wholesale and retail, and even in the street at the major intersections and traffic lights, there is always the preference of the wider street, more benefits for the wholesale buyer, more free minutes for the longer duration callers, and greater insurance premiums for the expensive car, or for the more statistically accidents numerous, and a higher return for the owners of the larger deposits in the banks, and more permissions for the manager of the company, and the higher salary for the workers supervisor, and a red pen for the teacher, and the opinion which may not accept any discussion for the parents in the house!

How can we stop at the elections issue without development since the Middle Ages to equate all generations and age groups and ignore all the differences between the individual characters, not from a humanitarian perspective, or even human values, which may not be debated that we are all equal, but from the perspective of experience and better visions of the whole community and knowing its needs and its public interest in various fields, and we all used to do so when we consulted experienced people in many things.

**Finally**

Finally, this study is considered to be an ideal introduction to illustrate how and why to apply the The Modern Social Contract Theory and its electoral weights theory in universities, and it may used as an initial study which may be needed to know how it can be applied in any society in general, it is a try for developing and advancement of the community to be closer to our reality and our customs and traditions and to be in line with our way of life and the deferent numbers of children that every society used to have for every family, and therefore it is a try to treat with the percentage of the number of mature and experienced people and their impact in any society, and this may happen only when we raise their electoral weights comparing with the new generations to restore the balance to the community by using this theory.

Book Name: The Modern Social Contract Theory – The Electoral Weight Theory

**E: The Statistical Calculations of the election results**

The following table is showing the statistics of the votes of an imaginary example of a university students union elections, which was aim to select 2 candidates from total 5.

Supposed that there is 10000 student distributed as follows

4000 student in the first year, with electoral weight = 1 for each

3000 student in the second year, with electoral weight = 2 for each

2000 student in the third year, with electoral weight = 3 for each

1000 student in the fourth year, with electoral weight = 4 for each

All of this student have voted in this elections, and there was only 4 weights that applicable in this university according to the grade of study year, starting from 1 up to 4.

For every candidate we counted all his votes that came from every weight, and then distributed the votes according to the weight corresponding in each column and computed the total weight of each column and then counted the sum as the total net weights of votes as shown in this table:

According to the above statistics, we can notice the way that the electoral weight played in this election and made the deference, as we have the candidates A and B was advanced with 2200 and 2100 total votes respectively, but this wasn’t sufficient to win this election when using the electoral theory, and the winners instead of them should be the candidate D and C, who gained 4300 and 4200 of total net weights of votes after using the theory.

It is clear that the use of electoral weights theory greatly influenced the outcome of the election in this simplified imaginary example, with the large effect that resulted from the impact of high electoral weights’ students votes who are in the higher level in the university, compared with the impact of new students with low electoral weights voices who belong to the first year grade.

**F: Additional Notes**

**1**. It may be required a brief identification of fixing the electoral weights for every student according to more categories or more detailed information as it may meet the needs of the university, and according to what can be beneficial that and what is expected from this new categories, so it is possible that the university may not use only grade year to put the electoral weights, and it may add other factors to determine this weight, such as the scientific level and the public activities or his participation in the academic and research activities as an additional factors that may be used to collect annual points and then using all these factors in a special mathematical equation to calculate the exact electoral weight of each student.

**2**. in the previous example, the electoral weights was counted as 1, 2, 3, 4 for the students who are in grade 1, 2, 3, 4 respectively, and that made the effect of the votes of high level student double of the lower levels, but there is still many ways to use this theory with lower effects, for example, in the same university it was also possible to determine the electoral weight to be in accordance with the following series :

first year with electoral weight = 1.1

second year, with electoral weight = 1.2

third year, with electoral weight = 1.3

fourth year, with electoral weight = 1.4

with this type of classification for the electoral weights we may not have a big effect of the high levels grade students’ votes, which may make big changes to the election results, but in general it is important to have good planning for the selection of the best way to fit with the goal of applying the theory, which is the development of the electoral process and access to get the best results that is more suitable for the university that apply it.

**3**. Also we may use more than one factor that can be classified in the same way as the level year study in similar way and then adding it to the electoral weight of the student, to get the final values of it and then use it in the statistical table as above.

For example, if we supposed another factor such as scientific and public activities for every student to be one of 4 choices too, as this:

low scientific scale students take additional electoral weight = 1

medium scientific scale students take additional electoral weight = 2

High scientific scale students take additional electoral weight = 3

So, with this new factor we can suppose a total electoral weight value for any student will be equivalent to his year of study + his scientific scale, for example for a student in the 3^{rd} year who has a medium scientific scale will get a total electoral Weight equal to 3 + 2 = 5.

**Recommendations**

When applying the The Modern Social Contract Theory – Electoral Weights Theory in a university, it usually aims for a real development of the elections process, in order to achieve the highest level of success for it and for the whole activities in the university and its educational goals, and the best simplification of this theory that is it help us to expand the role of the high level and more experienced students and to make the more benefits from their experience that they accumulated during their academic study, rather than equality with the new students who are newly enrolled to the university, who usually may need more time to gain that experience.

On the other hand, we should make a lot of researches and studies before we start applying the The Modern Social Contract Theory, especially the necessary factors that needed to calculate the electoral weight, and it is many several factors, for example if a university is taking care more about scientific research it may be important to calculate the points for scientific research carried out by the student and entered it into the equation that used for calculating the electoral weight, while in another university they may, for example, give the students additional points for his attending of the lectures for all or some courses and count this points in the electoral weights computing.

In general, it is supposed from the university that going to apply this theory to use it with the way that help in achieving its big goals which may defer from one to other, for example, the universities who are looking for global competition and characteristically they may raise the weights using factors related to the research activity in general, and the universities who are looking for rising the regularity issue will make the weights depends more on the attendance of verity lectures as a kind of encouragement for the students to get better electoral weights.

In all cases, the application of this theory will lead to a situation of competition between all students to estimate and uphold the self-respect in the university environment by trying to raise the value of the vote’s electoral weight, and this will create a state of the intensification of scientific and research competition or commitment in general each year, and during all years that make the student get its results every year directly at the elections date, and also solve the laziness problem that can occur during the long term studying for all years** **

**Summary**

In fact, we are using the Electoral Weights Theory every day and everywhere, we are almost using it in all places, directly or indirectly, in our house, school, work, in companies, banks, insurance companies and telecommunications, in retail wholesale and retail, and even in the street at the major intersections and traffic lights, there is always the preference of the wider street, more benefits for the wholesale buyer, more free minutes for the longer duration callers, and greater insurance premiums for the expensive car, or for the more statistically accidents numerous, and a higher return for the owners of the larger deposits in the banks, and more permissions for the manager of the company, and the higher salary for the workers supervisor, and a red pen for the teacher, and the opinion which may not accept any discussion for the parents in the house!

How can we stop at the elections issue without development since the Middle Ages to equate all generations and age groups and ignore all the differences between the individual characters, not from a humanitarian perspective, or even human values, which may not be debated that we are all equal, but from the perspective of experience and better visions of the whole community and knowing its needs and its public interest in various fields, and we all used to do so when we consulted experienced people in many things.

**Finally**

Finally, this study is considered to be an ideal introduction to illustrate how and why to apply the The Modern Social Contract Theory and its electoral weights theory in universities, and it may used as an initial study which may be needed to know how it can be applied in any society in general, it is a try for developing and advancement of the community to be closer to our reality and our customs and traditions and to be in line with our way of life and the deferent numbers of children that every society used to have for every family, and therefore it is a try to treat with the percentage of the number of mature and experienced people and their impact in any society, and this may happen only when we raise their electoral weights comparing with the new generations to restore the balance to the community by using this theory.

Book Name: The Modern Social Contract Theory – The Electoral Weight Theory